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Pneumatic Conveying Systems

Transport Powders & Granules from one point to another quickly and efficiently

  • Product Description
  • 3 Ways to Generate Air Stream
  • Compatible Products
  • Ideal for these industries
  • 2 Types of Pneumatic Conveyance

Transport Powders & Granules from one point to another quickly and efficiently

Pneumatic conveying systems use pipes or ducts called transportation lines to carry a mixture of materials and a stream of air.

Materials most suitable for pneumatic conveying systems are dry pulverized or free flowing or light powdery like cement, fly ash etc.

These materials are transported by means of a stream of high velocity air through the pipes or ducts.

The products are moved through various tubes via air pressure, allowing for extra vertical versatility. Pneumatic conveyors are either carrier systems or dilute-phase systems; carrier systems simply push items from one entry point to one exit point, such as the money-exchanging pneumatic tubes used at a bank drive-through window. Dilute-phase systems use push-pull pressure to guide materials through various entry and/or exit points.

Note that air compressors, vacuums, or blowers can all be used to generate air-flow. Deciding on which method of air-flow generation will depend on researching which method will be the most efficient and economical way of transporting your specific product.

Three basic systems that are used to generate high-velocity air stream:


  1. Suction or vacuum systems, utilizing a vacuum created in the pipeline to draw the material with the surrounding air.The system operated at a low pressure, which is practically 0.4–0.5 atm below atmosphere, and is utilized mainly in conveying light free flowing materials.
  2. Pressure-type systems, in which a positive pressure is used to push material from one point to the next. The system is ideal for conveying material from one loading point to a number of unloading points. It operates at a pressure of 6 atm (standard atmosphere) and upwards.
  3. Combination systems, in which a suction system is used to convey material from a number of loading points and a pressure system is employed to deliver it to a number of unloading points.

Pneumatic conveying systems are ideal for conveying non-blended or homogenous powders and granules. Here are a list of products that can take advantage of the economical pneumatic conveying system:

• salt
• sugar
• flour
• starch
• spices
• yeast granules
• glucose
• talc
• paracetamol
• PVC resins
• limes
• silica sands
• soda ash
• iron oxides
• calcium carbonates
• cement
• fly ash
• detergent

Industries that use the pneumatic conveying system:

• Food
• Pharmaceutical
• Fine Chemical
• Plastic
• Water
• Mineral

Although there are dozens of different pneumatic conveying configurations, the systems can be divided into two types:


1. Dilute Phase
2. Dense Phase

The basis of Dilute Phase Conveying is that the material is carried in a Continuous Stream of Air. The air has relatively high velocity and low pressure. This method is suitable for materials with low bulk density.
Dilute Phase Systems can be further divided into 2 main types:

1. Dilute Phase Pressure
The air blows into the line and conveys from the product source(s) to the product destination. A filter at the destination cleans the exhaust air. This is the most popular configuration

2. Dilute Phase Vacuum
The air is sucked through a filter at the destination, drawing product into the air stream. The method is ideal for manual or bag unloading stations or other portable product sources.
Dilute Phase for pneumatic conveying typically has the lowest initial investment cost

Select on the links and tabs below for further information
  • Powders
  • Renders
  • Cement
  • Sand or Lime Products
  • Tile Adhesive
  • Flour
  • Breadcrumbs
  • Free-flowing foods
  • (Products sensitive to augering like Pierlite or Pedrite

Key Points of Dilute Phase Conveying:
1. Material is suspended in the conveying air
2. Suitable for Lower density products
3. Low system pressures (< 15 psig) 4. High air to solids loading ratios (> 2.0)
5. High linear velocities
6. More wear and tear – mostly due to the high velocities
7. Lower capital costs at startup
8. Easier to operate
Major pneumatic system components include:
1. Fan blowers and vacuum pumps with high flow, low pressure characteristics
2. Rotary airlock valves, venturis, or Cone Valves
3. Pipework including bends, straights, flexible couplings, elbows
4. Intermediate components like wear bends & scale diverter valves
5. Cyclones, and unloading hoppers
6. Dust collectors and bin vents
7. Controls Systems
8. Gain-in-weight and loss of weight batching systems
9. Associated Silos, day bins, weigh hoppers, bulka bag systems, etc

The basic concept of Dense Phase Conveying is that a pulse of air is used to force a plug of material from one point to another. The air has high pressure and low velocity. It is ideal for Higher density products or conveying longer distances. Dense phase is the best option for abrasive & pre blended products.
Dense Phase Systems can be further divided into 2 main types:
1. Dense Phase Pressure
The system uses a vessel to hold the material while air is injected to a set pressure. The discharge valve is opened sending a plug of material to the destination. A filter at the destination cleans the exhaust air. Most Dense Phase systems are of this type.
2. Dense Phase Vacuum
The system draws a vacuum on a vessel and feed piping, at the destination. A plug of product will be drawn from the source when the source discharge valve is open. The method is used for manual or bag unloading stations.
Major pneumatic system components include:
1. Positive Displacement Blower or Air Compressor with High pressure and Low flow characteristics
2. Pressure pot Systems, including venting chamber
3. Pipework including bends, straights, flexible couplings, elbows;
4. Cyclones, and unloading hoppers
5. Dust collectors and bin vents
6. Controls Systems
7. Gain-in-weight and loss of- weight batching systems
8. Associated Silos, day bins, weigh hoppers, bulk bags systems, etc

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